The Nordics initially began to invade what would become Normandy at the end of the 8th century. Permanent Scandinavian colonies were created before 911, when Rolão (r. 911-927), one of the Viking leaders, and King Charles the Simple (r. 893-922) of France reached an agreement in which the latter handed over the County of Ruan to the Viking leader. The land around Ruham later became the nucleus of the Duchy of Normandy. The region may have been used as a base when the Scandinavian attacks on England were renewed at the end of the 10th century, which would have worsened relations between England and Normandy. In an effort to improve the situation, English king Etelredo, the Unprepared took Emma of Normandy, the sister of Duke Richard II, as his second wife in 1002.
Danish attacks on England continued, and Etelredo sought Ricardo's help. He had to take refuge in Normandy in 1013, when King Sueno Beard Bifurca expelled him with his family from England. The king of the English returned when Sueno died in 1014, but his son, Canuto the Great (r. 1018-1035), contested his return. Etelredo died unexpectedly in 1016, and Canuto became the ruler of England. The two sons of Etelredo and Emma, Edward (r. 1042-1066) and Alfredo Atelingo, went into exile in Normandy, while their mother would become the second wife of the Danish king.
William I (in Old Norman: Williame I; in Old English: Willelm I; Falaise, c. 1028 - Ruin, September 9, 1087), generally called William, the Conqueror was the first Norman king of England, who ruled from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Viking invaders, he was Duke of Normandy from 1035. After a long struggle to establish his power in 1060, his dominion over the French region became secure, and he began the Norman conquest of England in 1066. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his dominion over England and its continental lands, and by difficulties with his eldest son.